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Gynecomastia is defined as the development of enlarged breast glands in men. It may coexist with hypertrophy of adipose tissue. The condition in which a man develops large breasts due to hypertrophy of adipose tissue without the presence of a mass gland is defined as pseudogynecomastia. Gynecomastia is considered to be a normal condition in men in three situations:

– Neonatal age: Estrogen increase from the mother.

– Adolescence. Estrogen and testosterone imbalance.

– Senile age: Suppression of testosterone production.

At any other age, gynecomastia is considered to be a pathological condition and should be treated as such.


– Idiopathic (without a specific cause – most common)

– Taking medication

– Taking hormones or substances

– Adrenal tumours

– Pituitary tumours

The diagnosis is made clinically (palpation) and confirmed by breast ultrasound.

Treatment varies depending on whether gynecomastia or pseudogynecomastia is to be treated:

– Gynecomastia: The treatment consists of removing the hypertrophic adipose tissue by liposuction and simultaneously resecting the mass gland with a crescent-shaped incision at the lower dermis and papillary alveolar border. It is performed under anesthesia or general anesthesia and the patient is discharged from the clinic 4-5 hours after the procedure.

– Pseudogynecomastia: It is treated with liposuction (usually assisted) under local anesthesia in the surgery without hospitalization.


– Prophylactic antibiotic treatment

– Use of a special vest (corset) for 1 month

– Avoidance of weight lifting and physical exercise for one month

Before and after



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